* Heart Disease risk factors
* Blood Tests
* Additional Tests
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Predicting Heart Disease Risk
These two articles (click on Lp(a) & Homocysteine and hs-CRP) explain the importance of:
* Lp(a) - Lipoprotein (a)
* hs-CRP - high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein
These 3 inflammatory factors are more important risk factors than the normal lipid profile performed by most doctors (HDL, LDL & triglycerides).
Lp(a) & Homocysteine
Preventive Approach to Cardiovascular Disease!
The problem IS blood, not blood vessels.
Article written by David C Korn
ANA (Antinuclear Antibody)
Although the ANA test is used primarily to diagnose lupus, this test can also identify "pericarditis", fluid on the heart lining. The ANA test is designed to identify antibodies in the blood that are capable of attacking the inner part (nucleus) of a patients cells.
Apo A (Apolipoprotein A-I)
Apo A-I may be ordered along with Apo B-100 when your doctor wants to check your Apo A/Apo B ratio (sometimes used as a CAD risk indicator, - basically showing the ratio of good to bad cholesterol.)
Apo B (Apolipoprotein B-100)
Sometimes doctors will order both Apo A-I (associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -- the "good" cholesterol) and Apo B-100 levels to get a ratio of A/B, - to obtain additional risk information.
CK (Creatine Kinase) or CPK (Phosphocreatine Kinase)
CK tests are used to evaluate neuromuscular diseases; ie: elevated CK levels indicate muscle damage.
Cortisol & Other Stress Hormones, such as ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic) and Aldosterone
Chronic stress can cause elevations in cortisol, ACTH, aldosterone, which disrupts the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis). High circulating level of cortisol leads to insulin resistance. Chronic insulin resistance then leads to Syndrome X, the metabolic syndrome. Interesting article by Malcolm Kendrick, MD. ~ So, What Does Cause Heart Disease?
CRP (C-Reactive Protein)
CRP has been widely reported as a possible key indicator of heart health. CRP levels will rise due to heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular events.
Also see: hs-CRP
* hs-CRP (High-sensitivity C-reactive protein)
People who have hs-CRP results in the high end of the normal range have 1.5 to 4 times the risk of having a heart attack as those with CRP values at the low end of the normal range.
ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
Also known as "Sed rate" ~ ESR is an easy, inexpensive, nonspecific test that has been used for many years to help diagnose conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.
Fibrinogen is usually ordered with other tests. It helps your doctor to evaluate your body's ability to form and break down blood clots. Sometimes fibrinogen is ordered, along with other cardiac risk markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), to help determine a
patient's overall risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
High levels of homocysteine in the blood may increase your risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent coronary artery disease. Elevated homocysteine levels may also damage the lining of blood vessels, which may lead to the formation of blood clots; these, in turn, may increase your risk of stroke, heart attack (myocardial infarction), and pulmonary embolism. There is no safe "normal range". Optimal level is < 6.2. For every 3 points above 6.3, there is a 35% increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
LDL, HDL, Triglycerides and Total Cholesterol. Lipid Profile is the standard group of tests that are ordered to determine risk of coronary heart disease. Most doctors only order homocysteine, Lp(a) and hs-CRP tests when a patient specifically requests them.
Liver Blood Enzymes
Very detailed explanation of: AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), medications & common causes for abnormal aminotransferase levels.
* Lp(a) - Lipoprotein (a)
Lp(a) is ordered, along with other lipid tests, to selectively screen for risk factors for coronary artery disease and cerebral vascular disease.
Lp(a) is a surrogate for ascorbate ~ Dr's Matthias Rath & Linus Pauling
NMR LipoProfile® test is an unique blood test your doctor can perform to determine your risk of developing heart disease. The number of LDL partciles circulating in your blood is the most important factor in measuring your heart health. Generally, the lower the number of LDL particles, the better.
Serum Ferritin (Serum Iron)
What are signs of iron overload in my system?
The most common symptom is pain, as iron accumulates in your body, usually in your joints. Other symptoms include fatigue and lack of energy, abdominal pain, loss of sex drive, and heart problems. Some people, however, have no symptoms of this condition.
VAP (Vertical Auto Profile)
VAP Test is a better cholesterol test. Like routine tests, the VAP Test measures total cholesterol, HDL ("good" cholesterol), LDL ("bad" cholesterol), and triglycerides. But the VAP Test also measures cholesterol subclasses that play important roles in the development of heart disease.
There have been cases regarding individuals who are given a certain therapeutic drug to treat symptoms or to keep symptoms from occurring in which the individual has a very violent reaction to the drug or feels no affect whatsoever. Many times this happens because of the genetic makeup of the individual. The study of this phenomenon is called pharmacogenomics or pharmacogenetics.